Global Ethics


by limitlesslife

Decades of Chemtrails and Advanced Climate Change Technologies Now Threaten Extinction Level Event 1

global-warming-concept-planet-earth-burning-fire

Comment:  The arrogance of the Banksters and thugs of the New World Order are now flirting with an extinction-level climate disaster. 

Decades of secret tinkering with advanced weather weapons technologies may have finally pushed the stability of earth’s climate past the tipping point and into accelerated rate of atmospheric heating.   In desperation, the masters of the Universe have put HAARP into service in a race against time to mitigate the quickly rising oceanic methane releases rising up into the stratosphere and mesosphere.  This (still undisclosed) planetary emergency comes after decades of deliberate climate warming experiments and deployment of geoengineering aerosols (chemtrails) that have finally let the genie of hell out of the bottle.

Let’s read the conclusions of Malcolm P.R. Light first:

Conclusions

The UN/US must immediately declare an international emergency of the most extreme kind and call for a conference of world governments and oil companies to select the fastest and most efficient way to deal with the Arctic methane eruption threat. The Lucy Project and suggested HAARP experiments are methods of destroying the Arctic atmospheric methane clouds at a distance and will be our first line of defence against the extreme global warming potential of the fast increasing concentration of methane in the atmosphere. The Angels proposal aims to depressurize the Arctic sub seafloor methane in – situ and shut down the methane eruption centres, but it will require massive cooperation between governments and oil companies to achieve its objectives (Light, 2012c). We are already two years past the tipping point in August 2010 when massive subsea atmospheric methane eruptions started in earnest in the Arctic. The next three years are all we have left to try to put a break on the Arctic methane emissions before the heating effects and sea level rise due to loss of Arctic sea ice and Arctic methane induced global warming will be completely unstoppable and humanity will be facing total extinction before the middle of this Century (2050).

I cannot emphasise more how serious the Arctic ocean methane eruption problem is and how little time we have left before its effects on global warming become catastrophic. We need to act now before it is too late.

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Published Saturday, October 13, 2012

Radio and Laser Frequency and Harmonic Test Ranges for the Lucy and HAARP Experiments and their Application to Atmospheric Methane Destruction

by Malcolm P.R. Light – Original Post

October 7th, 2012

Introduction

FIGURE1

Methane is now being expelled into the Arctic atmosphere by the subsea methane hydrates at a fast increasing rate and that this expulsion began in earnest in August 2010 (Figure 1; Arctic atmospheric methane concentrations at ca 7 km altitude – Yurganov 2012; Carana 2011 a,b,c; 2012 a,b; Light 2002 a,b; 2011 a,b,c; 2012 a,b,c; Light and Carana 2011). The methane is rising into the stratosphere and mesosphere where some of it is being oxidised to produce larger quantities of noctilucent clouds between 76 and 85 km altitude. These noctilucent clouds were seen north of Norway but are now occurring at much lower latitudes over Colorado. An early figure from NASA indicates that noctilucent clouds were originally confined to the southern polar regions (Figure 2).

figure2

Prof. James Russel of Hampton University argues that the build up of methane in the atmosphere is the reason for the increase in noctilucent clouds. Prof Russel says that “When methane makes its way into the upper atmosphere it is oxidised by a complex series of reactions to form water vapour. This extra water vapour is then available to grow ice crystals for noctilucent clouds”. Therefore if we succeed in breaking down the methane in the stratosphere and mesosphere using the HAARP – IRIS (Ionospheric Research Instrument) using the 13.56 MHz methane destruction frequency it could lead to an increase in noctilucent cloud formation in a circular zone directly above the HAARP transmitters which could be detected by optical cameras or radar. The HAARP tests should be conducted in the summer when the temperatures are at their lowest in Alaska (140o to 160o Kelvin) increasing the chances of noctilucent cloud formation from the radio frequency oxidised methane. The HAARP IRIS transmitters normal frequency range is from 2.8 MHz to 10 MHz (Wales 2012). If for example a 10 MHz carrier wave is modulated by a 3.56 MHz signal it will produce and Upper Side Frequency of 13.56 MHz the required methane destruction frequency and a Lower Side Frequency of 6.44 MHz (see Table 3)(Penguin Dictionary of Physics, 2000)

NASA modelling shows a wide equatorial band of stratospheric methane reaching 1.8 ppmv, much higher than occurs in the troposphere indicating that the methane is rising up into the stratosphere where it is now accumulating and it will soon form a continuous global warming veil causing extreme heating of the Earth’s surface by trapping the suns heat below it (Figure 3)(Light 2011c).

figure3

The problem is that the methane being released into the Arctic atmosphere from destabilization of the submarine methane hydrates has an extremely high global warming potential compared to carbon dioxide, close to 100 times for the first 15 years of its life (Wales 2012; Dessuse et al. 2008). Hence a methane concentration of 2 ppmv is approximately equivalent to adding 200 ppmv of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, i.e. multiplying the present carbon dioxide content by 1.5. But 2 ppmv is only 2 ten thousands of a percent of methane and you need about 15 percent of methane in the air for it to burn (Wales 2012). Therefore you cannot burn these giant clouds of methane erupting into the Arctic atmosphere and they are rising so fast through the troposphere into the stratosphere that they become impossible to deal with without some action at a distance method such as radio waves or laser. We could of course try to get chemicals up there and into the Arctic but that would lead to even more pollution in the long run. Vibrating the ionosphere at the correct methane destruction radio frequency using HAARP may help to oxidise some of the methane throughout the entire stratosphere and troposphere but more localised radio/laser destruction of the rising methane clouds will also be required if we are going to make any dent at all in the volume of methane that is now being released into the atmosphere from the Arctic ocean.

We are dealing with oceanic methane being released in increasing quantities into the atmosphere from destabilised methane hydrates over which we have no control at all and once it is in the air and in the stratosphere we presently have no way to break it down. This Stratospheric methane reservoir is going to increase in density, thickness and extent until it encompasses the entire Earth and will eventually cause catastrophic global warming and the extinction of all life on earth (Light 2011c). Furthermore because the methane remains mostly in the stratosphere, it is not recorded when average atmospheric compositions are determined at Mauna Loa and other locations so we don’t know how much is up there yet (Light 2011c). When the German-French Merlin Lidar methane detecting satellite is launched in 2014 we should have a better idea of the methane distribution from the surface to 50 km altitude.

When the Arctic ice cap melts towards the end of 2015 there will be a massive increase in the amount of heat being absorbed by the Arctic ocean from the sun. Tthe Gulf Stream which presently feeds the Arctic with Atlantic water along the west side of Svalbard and through the Barents Sea is normally cooled when it hits the floating ice pack and this will cease to happen bringing even vaster amounts of Atlantic heat via the Gulf Stream into the Arctic. Consequently the Arctic subsea methane hydrates will destabilize at an even faster rate because of the increasing Arctic ocean temperature pouring methane into the Arctic atmosphere and stratosphere (Light 2011c, Light 2012a, b).

The extreme weather events in the United States this year which included record heating and drought conditions, massive loss of food crops with farmers going bankrupt, more hurricane flooding in New Orleans and tornadoes in New York is just a small sample of what will come in the next four or five summers as the Arctic ice finally melts. The Arctic ice cap works like the Earths air conditioner because of the latent heat of melting and freezing of the floating ice and its effect on moderating atmospheric temperatures.

An extensive stratospheric methane warming veil is spreading over the United States and is undoubtedly the reason for the extreme weather events and very high temperatures. The livelihoods of all the American people are going to be totally compromised in the next few years unless we develop a system of destroying the atmospheric methane that is erupting in the Arctic from the destabilization of submarine methane hydrates and is accumulating as a global warming veil in the stratosphere and mesosphere

We are facing impossible odds with regard to the Arctic ocean methane release and in the same way that Colonel Travis drew a line at the Alamo to ask for volunteers to help him defend the mission against Santa Ana’s massive Mexican army, I am drawing a virtual line through the snow on the top of the Arctic ice pack to ask for volunteers to defend the American people from the fast gathering Arctic methane global firestorm. We desperately need dedicated scientists and engineers to volunteer to develop an effective “action at a distance” method of destroying the Arctic oceanic methane clouds as they are erupting from the sea surface and entering the stratosphere and mesosphere. If the United States can land giant rovers on the mars with a sky crane, surely American engineers and scientists are up to this challenge. We need to get rid of as much of this atmospheric methane as we can to drop the polar temperatures to reasonable levels. This will of course have to go hand in hand with a massive cut back in carbon dioxide emissions from all developed and developing countries.

The Technology

Methane in the air may be decomposed between two radio transmitters where the two radio beams intersect one another at right angles within the atmospheric methane cloud such as in Figure 4 (Table 3). In this system one of the frequencies of the two transmissions is 10 MHz and the other 23.56 MHZ which generates a beat frequency of 13.56 MHZ, the required frequency to break down the first C-H bond in the methane molecule.

If the ratios of the transmitted frequencies are 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 or 3:4, planar cross shaped harmonics are generated in the interference pattern (Ashton 2001) generated by the two transmitters which are at right angles and this should lead to increased destruction of the methane molecule because its four hydrogen bonds can be viewed as forming a cross (Figure 4).

figure4

Another method of destroying the atmospheric methane clouds is for three transmitters to be situated on the corners of an equilateral triangle and the correct distance apart so that their three transmission beams intersect exactly at right angles in space within the methane cloud we are wanting to decompose (Figure 5). These three transmitters set up an interference pattern which is a cube of the original linear transmission beams (Figure 5). Accordingly, the three transmitters and the intersection point form a three dimensional interference figure (Figure 5).

figure5

Each 27.12 MHz beam has energy some 5.77 times as much and a 54.24 MHZ beam has energy some 11.54 times as much as the amount of energy required to break the first C-H bond in the methane molecule.

The resonance of the fundamental Degenerate Deformation (e)/ (3 power 10) vibration on the C – H bond with the 13.56 MHz harmonic in concert with the compression and extension of the methane H – H separation by the fundamental Synthetic Stretching resonance/ (3 power 9) will grow until one of the methane C – H bonds breaks eliminating the methane molecule from the global warming equation. This process will be enhanced by the generation of a three dimensional cross – shaped radio frequency ( (4:2, 3:2, 3:1,2:1) interference pattern in the methane clouds by using three transmitters separated such, that the three radio beams intersect one another exactly at right angles (Figures 5 and 6).

figure6

Project Lucy aims to design, build and test a microwave and laser transmission system targeting low-altitude methane clouds, while the HAARP experiment will target stratospheric methane clouds with the aim of breaking down the first C – H bond as soon as the methane erupts from the Arctic ocean into the atmosphere (Light and Carana, 2012) (Figure 7). Methyl group gases and oxygen and ionized hydrogen are released from the methane and water and the hydrogen will rise into the troposphere and stratosphere and combine to form H2.

One of the more complex radio and laser frequency methane destruction systems can be set up by three transmitters arranged in an equilateral triangle so that they set up a cubic interference pattern within the rising methane cloud (Figure 7). The transmitters can be mounted on submarines, planes and after 2015 on boats and drilling rigs when the Arctic ice cap has completely melted (Arctic News, 2012).

figure7

In this system each of the three radio transmitters will have a linked Lidar atmospheric methane detection laser with a 50 km effective range continuously scanning the 3D radio interference pattern ahead of a methane heating laser similar to the laser system designed for the Merlin satellite (see Ehret 2012 and Lidar lasers in this article). The leading methane detection laser (Ehret 2012) and lagging methane heating laser (Sternowski 2012) will be aimed subparallel to the (13.56 MHz; 27.12 MHz; 40.68 MHz or 54.24 MHz) radio transmission beam and they will scan the entire face of the cubic interference pattern in a repetitive sequence similar to an electron gun on a TV screen. The methane heating laser which will be tuned to the fundamental and degenerate methane bending and stretching frequencies (V1 – V4) (Boudon 2012; Sternowski, 2012) and will be oriented subparallel to the atmospheric methane detection laser but will scan slightly behind it.

The 9 radio and laser transmission systems will be linked via a geostationary satellite to a neural net computer system at a base station which will continuously monitor the methane content in the cloud (as well as wind direction and speed?) and automatically adjust the frequencies, polarizations, phase shifts and beam directions of all three separate transmitter arrays to achieve maximum methane destruction at all times.

We can imagine that the methane molecules will be spinning in the rising Arctic atmospheric methane cloud and at some moment in time, a portion of them will have one of their four hydrogen protons located at the top as shown in Figure 8. If we then imagine three in phase electromagnetic (EM) transmissions advancing parallel to the upper three sides of the methane tetrahedron with a relative wavelength equal to about 1.7751 Angstroms (10^-10 meters) and that these three waves sum at the crest of the spinning methane molecule, they should eject the positive methane proton from repulsion when they synchronously pulse positive. This process should work to a lesser degree for any larger wavelength harmonics of the H – H spacing EM wavelength assumed in this example so long as the three transmissions are exactly in phase and help break the “Perfect Diamond Cleavage Surface” zone of weakness in the methane molecule which is situated at half the H – H spacing (see Figures 6 and 8). For this system to be most effective the three transmission systems should be located at the lower three corners of an equilateral triangle of a tetrahedron as shown in Figures 5 and 8.

figure9

Yet another way of destabilizing the upper hydrogen proton in a spinning methane molecule is by circular polarization of one of the three in phase EM transmissions (Figure 9). When these three EM transmissions sum at the top of the spinning methane molecule they will eject the upper hydrogen proton as they synchronously pulse positive assisted by a circular polarization torque on the proton which will try to rotate it toward the adjacent positive proton field (Figure 9). Circular polarization of the EM transmissions could also increase the rate of spin of the methane molecules thus increasing the centrifugal force and making the C – H bonds weaker.

figure10

Effective Radiated Power (ERP) of electromagnetic (EM) systems is a standard theoretical measurement of radio frequency (RF) energy and is determined by subtracting system losses and adding system gains (Wales, 2012). Additional energy will be required for the third circularly polarized transmitter because circular polarization reduces the strength of the Effective Radiated Power (ERP) by about a half (Wales, 2012). The same applies to transmissions where there is an equal split between horizontal and vertical polarization which cuts the reported Effective Radiated Power (ERP) in half (Wales, 2012).

figure11

An additional laser system could be connected to the Lidar – laser atmospheric methane detection and methane heating lasers to also detect wind motion and direction within the methane cloud using a doppler (frequency shift) system (Ehret, 2012). This wind speed and direction detection system could be used to adjust the strength and direction of the radio and laser transmission network to compensate for increases or decreases in the methane input due to wind velocity changes.

In this case the complete transmission system would involve three radio transmitters, three wind speed/direction lasers, three Lidar atmospheric methane detection lasers and three methane heating lasers which will energise the fundamental and degenerate bending and stretching modes of the methane molecule, 12 transmitters in all.

Side Frequencies 

When a carrier wave of frequency fn is modulated by a sinusoidal frequency fm (where fm is very much smaller than fn), the composite wave consists of three separate components which have the following frequencies:-

1…… fn
2…… fn + fm (The Upper Side Frequency)
3…… fn – fm (The Lower Side Frequency)

fn – fm is equivalent to a beat frequency or to a difference tone when it exceeds 20 beats per second (Penguin Dictionary of Physics, 2000).

Laboratory methane destruction experiments have shown that a frequency of 27.12 MHz gives a higher rate of methane conversion than the 13.56 MHz frequency which is normally used (Shiryaev et al. 2006).

If the Upper Side frequency (fn + fm) is twice the value of the Lower side frequency (fn – fm) then we can let:-

(fn + fm) = 2 (fn – fm) = 2fn – 2fm
Therefore fn = 3fmIf we let fn = 20.34 MHz
fm = fn/3 = 6.78 MhzThen (fn + fm) = (20.34 + 6.78) MHz = 27.12 MHz
= 2*13.56 MHzand (fn-fm) = (20.34 – 6.78) MHz = 13.56 MHzMethane Fundamental Vibration LevelsMethane shows four normal modes of molecular vibration (Figure 10; Boudon 2012; Lide and Frederickse, 1995)

The primary fundamental vibration frequency is V1 (A1), a symmetrical stretching of the C – H bonds in the methane molecule which has a wavenumber of 2916 cm-1 (wavelength of 3.4294 microns)(Boudon 2012). The wavenumber of V1 was estimated earlier at 2917 cm-1 (Lide and Frederickse, 1995).

The V2(E, e) vibration frequency is a bending frequency of the C – H bonds in the methane molecule and forms a degenerate oscillator with a wavenumber of 1533 cm-1 (wavelength 6.5232 microns)(Boudon, 2012). A previous estimate of the V2 wavenumber was 1534 cm-1 (Lide and Frederickse, 1995).

The third fundamental frequency V3(F2, f) is a degenerate stretching oscillation of the methane C – H bonds with a wavenumber of 3019 cm-1 (Boudon, 2012; Lide and Frederickse, 1995).

The fourth fundamental frequency V4 (F2, f) is a bending frequency of the methane C- H bonds which also forms a degenerate oscillator with a wavenumber of 1311 cm-1 (wavelength 7.6277 microns)(Boudon 2012). Earlier estimates fixed V4 at a wavenumber of 1306 cm-1 (Lide and Frederickse, 1995).

The wavenumbers of the symmetrical stretching V1 and the degenerate stretching V3 are about the same and are approximately twice the values of the V2 and V4 degenerate deformational bending of the C – H bonds in the methane molecule (Figure 10; Boudon 2012). V1 and V2 are in the Raman range and V3 and V4 in the Infra Red range (Boudon 2012). These four vibration frequencies form a vibration structure with many vibration levels which are grouped into polyads (Figure 11; Boudon 2012).

All four of the fundamental vibration frequencies can be energised in methane molecule by lasers. These fundamental frequencies are:-

   Wavenumbers                             Wavelengths
V1   2916 cm-1  291600 m-1             3.429μ    3429 nm
V2   1533 cm-1  153300 m-1             6.523μ    6523 nm
V3   3019 cm-1  301900 m-1             3.312μ    3312 nm
V4   1311 cm-1  131100 m-1             7.628μ    7628 nm

The methane symmetrical and degenerate C- H bond stretching vibration frequencies V1 and V3 can be excited by tunable semiconductor lasers (Cd(1-x) Hg(x) Te and In As(1-x) Sb(x)), color center lasers (Rb Cl:Li) and possibly Neon lasers (Figures 12 and 13; Krupke in Lide and Frederikse, 1995).

figure12

The methane degenerate C – H bond bending deformations V2 and V4 can be excited by tunable carbon monoxide molecular lasers and semiconductor lasers (Cd(1-x) Hg(x) Te and Pb S(1-x) Se(x)) (Figures 12 and 13; Krupke in Lide and Frederikse, 1995). The Cd(1-x) Hg(x) Te semiconductor laser can be tuned to all four methane fundamental vibration wavelengths while the bending vibrations are also well covered by tunable carbon monoxide lasers (Figure 13; Krupke in Lide and Frederikse, 1995).

figure13

Atmospheric Methane Detection and Wind Speed/Direction Lasers

The methane detection Lidar laser system to be used in the Lucy Project will need to incorporate the abilities of the Merlin Satellite Lidar methane detection system described by Ehret (2010) and Millet and Alpers (2010). This will include an ability to detect atmospheric methane concentrations over a distance of some 50 km in the Earth’s atmosphere and possibly simultaneously develop a wind profile from the measurement of frequency changes (Ehret, 2000). The wind laser systems send intense laser pulses through the atmosphere which are scattered back from distant particles and molecules, analysed as a function of time and frequency and the wind direction and speed are determined from the doppler frequency shift (Ehret 2010).

The atmospheric methane detecting and wind speed/direction lasers in the Lucy Project will scan the methane cloud ahead of the methane fundamental vibration excitation lasers and will be linked in real time via a geostationary satellite to a controlling base station with a computer neural network (Figure 7). The base station computer will thus be able to monitor and predict changes in the atmospheric methane concentration and adjust the direction, strength, frequency, phase shifts and polarizations of the radio and laser transmitter systems to achieve maximum methane destruction (Figure 7).

The email addresses of staff who could be contacted about the details of the Lasers and work at the Merlin Satellite and the LIDAR methane detection system at the Deutches Zentrum für Luft – und – Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut fur Physik der Atmosphäre are listed below:-

Prof. Dr. Martin Dameris – Martin.Dameris@dlr.de
PD. Dr. rer.nat. Veronika Eyring – http://www.dlr.de/pa
Dr. rer. nat. habil. Dietrich Heimann – d.heimann@dlr.de
Dr. Hans Volkert – Hans.Volkert@dlr.de
Dr. rer. nat. Gehard Ehret – http://www.dlr.de/pa
DLR: Dr Matthias Alpers – matthias.alpers@dlr.de
CNES:Bruno Millet – bron.millet@cnes.fr

The following section is taken directly from a description by Millet and Alpers (2010) and Ehret (2010) on the characteristics of the atmospheric methane detection lasers to be mounted on the MERLIN satellite (Doc.Ref.No. MLN-SYS-MEMO-10015-DLR CNES – De l’espace pour la Terre. DLR).
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Methane Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) LIDAR
(Light Detecting and Ranging) Atmospheric Methane Detecting Laser

The Methane LIDAR instrument (Light Detection and Ranging, sometime referred to as ‘light radar’) transmits pulses of light towards Earth, and then receives the radiation that is reflected back from Earth’s surface, again in pulse form. Whenever one of these pulses encounters Methane, its signal strength is reduced and the instrument detects this reduction. The instrument send its laser beam to and from the Earth 24 times a second. With the measured values, a world map showing atmospheric Methane concentrations can be produced and also regional differences can be highlighted.

Global information on atmospheric Methane concentration (Methane column density) with an accuracy better than 2% and with a spatial resolution of 50 km along track also under cloudy and variable sun illumination conditions.

Differential absorption of gaseous methane at two laser wavelengths reflected from Earth surface or dense clouds.

Observation Method:

Differential absorption of gaseous methane at two laser wavelengths reflected from Earth surface or dense clouds.

LIDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging):

“Active” optical remote sensing instrument for atmospheric parameters or trace gases. Main components are (1) two pulsed high power laser emitters, (2) a telescope to receive the laser light backscattered from atmosphere or Earth surface, (3) a sensitive photon detector.IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption): Determination of total Methane column density between satellite and Earth surface or cloud top height. The Methane amount is calculated from different absorption at two laser wavelengths (on-line (λon) and off-line (λoff)), reflected on Earth surface or cloud top. Earth surface or cloud top reflected laser light is used because this is much more intense than backscattered light from aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The attenuation due to atmospheric Methane absorption is strong at the on-line wavelength. The off-line “reference” wavelength is selected to be only marginally affected by Methane absorption.Instrument Concept Type: Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR (D)
Pointing: 1- 2o off nadir, across track
Emitter: pulsed high power laser with about 24 Hz. rep.rate
(12 Hz double pulse, λon & λoff each), approx. 9 mJ pulse
energy, mean wavelength 1,645 μm
Receiver: Telescope o690 mm, APD detector
IPDA Lidar instrument power consumption: approx 111 w.Communication: S-Band Downlink for housekeeping data and S-Band Uplink for commanding
to CNES-ground station network.
X-Band Downlink for scientific data to CNES-ground station network.
The Merlin Lidar methane satellite is only to be launched in 2014. The widespread atmospheric methane eruptions in the Arctic from destabilized methane hydrates shows that by 2014/2015, major global warming induced sea level rise will have begun in earnest and we will have lost our chance to take remedial action. We need to know right now how serious the methane build up in the upper stratosphere is so that governments and oil companies can to react to any perceived emergency.It is recommended as a an emergency stop gap, that a Lidar methane detection device from DLR be mounted on the International Space Station to give early warning data on the build up of methane in the upper stratosphere and Arctic. This project should be promoted as a vital necessity because of the extreme gravity of the methane eruption problem in the Arctic. A German (Lidar trained) astronaut could be launched to the International Space Station as soon as feasibly possible to mount and run the device. This will also give another calibration of the Lidar methane device at shallower orbital altitudes which will assist the Merlin project. The DLR will need to immediately train a German astronaut on how to mount and run a Lidar methane detecting instrument on the International Space Station.

HAARP

The main instrument at HAARP Station is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI). This is a high power, high-frequencyphased array radio transmitter with a set of 180 antennas, disposed in an array of 12×15 units that occupy a rectangle of about 33 acres (13 hectares). The IRI is used to temporarily energize a small portion of the ionosphere. The study of these disturbed volumes yields important information for understanding natural ionospheric processes.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Frequency_Active_Auroral_Research_Program

The main MHZ frequency range (High Frequency Band 3 – 30 MHZ) of the powerful IRI transmitter is slightly different from the 13.56 MHZ needed to break down the methane. However it is very powerful with a 5.1 Giga watt effective radial power at maximum output. The Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI) at HAARP transmits over the range 2.8 MHZ to 10 MHZ slightly less than the 13.56 MHZ used to break down methane but as mentioned previously if the IRI transmitted a 10 MHz carrier waves modulated by a 3.56 MHz signal it will generate an Upper Side Frequency of 13.56 MHz which is the methane destruction frequency (Penguin Dictionary of Physics 2000).

Noctilucent clouds which are common in the Arctic form from water condensing around meteorite dust in the mesosphere above 50 km altitude and are becoming more and more abundant and are being seen at much lower latitudes. The increase in the methane concentration in the stratosphere and its oxidation in the mesosphere is resulting in more water at these high altitudes and an increase in the noctilucent clouds. The noctilucent clouds help reflect the suns heat back into space so if we can break down more methane with the HAARP or Lucy transmitters we should generate more clouds and thus help reverse global warming by:-

a) Getting rid of the high global warming potential methane at low altitudes and in the stratospheric global warming veil.

b) Generating sunshine reflecting noctilucent clouds in increasing amounts in the mesosphere which will reflect the suns energy back into space.

The HAARP facility has discovered what they call Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes which are elusive phenomena which may be due to a thicker development of noctilucent clouds in the Arctic summer due to the increasing methane build up. These echoes are detected with the IRI transmitter when it is used as a radar with one 28 MHZ radar and two other VHF radars of 49 MHZ and 139 MHZ. If we could transmit 13.56 MHZ on the IRI transmitter and use the other radars and optical cameras to look for reflections from noctilucent clouds formed from the breakdown of methane in a circular zone above the HAARP transmitter we should be able to effectively test the system. There ought to be a buildup of the noctilucent clouds in the area where the HAARP transmissions are focused on the ionosphere. If it works there are 4 other similar facilities in the world (Hipas, Alaska; Arecibo, Puerto Rico, EISCAT, Norway and Sura, Russia) where they could immediately attack the atmospheric methane as well.

HAARP Contacts, 2012.
John Hechscher, Director, HAARP, Gakona, Alaska
haarp.alaska.edu

377th Airforce Base Wing Public Affairs, 2000 Wyoming Blvd SE, Suite A1, Kirkland Air Force base, NM, 87117

Comparison of the Molecular Structures of Methane and Diamond

A detailed study was made of the molecular distances in methane and diamond molecules and their similarities and differences in order to determine what radio wavelengths would effectively operate on the destruction of the first C – H bond in the methane molecule and where the weakest zone exists within the structure of the methane molecule (see Table 1 and Figures 14 to 24). In addition, the relationship to the fundamental methane stretching and bending vibrations and methane destruction radio frequencies was also determined. The different molecular distances are numbered in Table 1 and can be directly found with the same number on the Figures 14 to 24.

figure14figure15figure16
figure17
figure18figure19figure20figure21figure22figure23figure24table1
Because of a perfect relationship between the diamond octahedron and the methane tetrahedron (Hurlbut, 1959), the methane can be looked upon as representing a hydrated diamond at its smallest state (Figure 6). Diamond has only one perfect 111 (and 1, bar1, 1) cleavage surface along which it preferentially breaks (Figure 6). Because the methane tetrahedron encloses a diamond shaped octahdedron whose vertices intersect the H – H spacing exactly at the centre, a perfect 111 equilateral triangular cleavage surface exists beneath each of the hydrogen protons at a half H – H spacing. This perfect 111 cleavage surface must represent a zone of weakness in the methane molecule which will allow the hydrogen protons to be dislodged from the methane molecule by stretching or bending the C – H bond or applying a torque to it due to the effects of radio and laser electromagnetic waves (Figure 6).A methane destruction frequency (RFT) of 13.56 MHz has a wavelength of 22.1085 meters. The methane destruction (RFT) wavelength divided by (3*2^36) is 1.0724 Angstroms (10^-10 meters) (RFT/A) and has been compared to the various molecular distances in the methane and diamond molecules. RFT/A is very similar to the methane C – H bond length of 1.087 Angstroms (10 power -10 meters) in the methane molecule (approximately 0.9865 of the value) (number 5 on Table 1). RFT/A is approximately 0.9819 of the value of the height of the 111 equilateral face side of the diamond 1/8 subcell = 1.0922 Angstroms (10 power -10 meters) (number 23 on Table 1).The frequency calculated from the height of the methane tetrahedron (number 8. – 1.25516*10 power -10 m) is closely related to the V2 bending degenerate deformation (wavenumber 1533 cm-1) and the 27.12 MHz methane destruction frequency. The ratio of the V2 bending frequency to the methane tetrahedron height frequency*3/(2 power 22) is 26.9192 which is very close to one millionth of the 27.12 MHZ methane destruction frequency (approximately 0.9926 of the value).Excel Table 2, Sheet 1 of Excel Table 2,3 and 4.
table2

Excel Table 2 shows the various harmonics of the 3 to 300 THz Electromagnetic Band (part μm waves, part infra red) which includes the four methane fundamental stretching and bending frequencies. Table 2 is found as Sheet 1 of Excel Table 2,3 and 4.

The four methane molecular vibrations, V1(A1) – symmetrical stretching (wavenumber 2916 cm-1), V2 (E,e) degenerate bending deformation (wavenumber 1533 cm-1), V3(F2,f), degenerate stretching (wavenumber 3019 cm-1) and V4 (F2,f) degenerate bending deformation (wavenumber 1311 cm-1 ) are taken from Boudon (2012). Boudan (2012) states that V1 and V3 have similar values and they are almost twice the values of V2 and V4. Lide and Frederickse (1995) give slightly different, earlier derived wavenumbers for V1 (2917 cm -1), V2 (1534 cm -1), V3 (3019 cm -1) and V4 (1306 cm -1).

The frequencies of the V2, V3 and V4 methane fundamental vibrations are found to be exact harmonics of the 13.56 MHz methane destruction frequency while the relative harmonic error between V1 and the 13.56 MHZ frequency is 1.85*10 power -7 (Table 2).

Various combinations of V1, V2 and V3 as carrier waves and V1, V2 and V4 as modulation signals with the corresponding Upper and Lower Side Frequencies are shown in Table 2.

The energy necessary to break the first C – H bond in one methane molecule is 7.35*10 power -24 electronvolts. The minimum energy of 0.16 electronvolts is shown by the V4(F2) bending molecular vibration which is 2.2*10 power 22 more than the neregy that is necessary to break of the first C – H bond in the methane molecule (Table 2). The V3 (F2) stretching vibration has a higher energy of 0.37 electron volts which is 5*10 power 22 times the energy that is necessary to break the first C – H bond in the methane molecule (Table 2). The highest energy of 0.73 electronvolts is shown by the Upper Side frequency (V3 + V1) which is 1*10 power 23 times as large as the energy necessary to break the first C – H bond in the methane molecule (Table 2).

The results of a number of possible transmission combinations are shown in Table 2. In the first case, if we have transmission of a single laser frequency such as V2, V3 and V4 from each of the three transmission stations there is a perfect resonance with the 13.56 MHz methane destruction frequency (Table 2). Furthermore the (V3 + V2) Upper Side Frequency and the (V3 – V2) Lower Side frequency also show perfect resonance with the 13.56 MHz interference pattern (Table 2). However there is slight dissonance between the (V2 and V4) and (V3 + V4) Upper Side Frequencies and the (V2 – V4) and (V3 – V4) Lower Side Frequencies with the 13.56 MHz transmission (Table 2).

A second case can be considered where we have transmissions of a carrier wave and a modulation signal laser frequency from each of the transmission stations (Table 2). In the first transmitter the V3 carrier, V2 signal, Upper Side Frequency (V3 + V2) and Lower Side frequency (V3 – V2) give perfect resonance with the 13.56 MHz methane destruction frequency (Table 2). In the second transmitter the V1 carrier has good resonance with 13.56 MHz radio frequency while the V2 modulation, The Upper Side Frequency (V1 + V2) and the Lower Side Frequency (V1 – V2) are in perfect resonance with the 13.56 methane destruction frequency (Table 2). The same situation also applies to the third transmitter where the V1 modulation signal has a good resonance with the 13.56 MHz radio frequency while the V3 carrier, (V3 + V1) Upper Side Frequency and (V3 – V1) Lower Side frequency are in perfect resonance with the 13.56 MHz methane destruction frequency (Table 2). In these three calculations of the transmissions there is perfect resonance between the 13.56 MHz interference pattern and all the Upper Side Frequencies ((V3 + V2), (V1 + V2), (V3 +V1)) and the Lower Side Frequencies ((V3 -V2), (V1 – V2), (V3 – V1)(Table 2).

Electromagnetic Buckling of the Methane C – H Bond

The curvature of a fold or buckle in the methane molecular structure is the reciprocal of the mean radius of curvature of the buckle or fold (Ramsay, 1967). We can look on the wavenumber of V4 bending = 1310.8 cm-1 = 131080 m-1 as a function of the curvature of the methane molecule and its reciprocal, the wavelength of V4 bending (7.6289*10 power -6 meters) as a function of the radius of curvature of the bending. Therefore the relative curvature of the methane molecule due to V4 bending = 131080 m-1 = 9 2/3* 13.56 MHz/1000 = 9 2/3*13.56 KHz.

This means that by increasing the frequency of the exciting EM and radio waves harmonically, we are going to increase the curvature of the methane molecule until such time as a fracture will precipitate along one of the “Perfect Diamond” 111 cleavage surfaces and one of the methane hydrogen protons will be ejected (Figure 5). This will destroy the methane molecule and eliminate it from the global warming equation.

Excel Table 3, Sheet 2, Excel Table 2,3 and 4

Excel Table 3 shows the various harmonics in the High Frequency (HF), ITU, Band No.7 (decameter waves) which include the methane destruction frequencies (13.56 and 27.12 MHz)., the octave (2:1), second overtone (3:1), lateral fifth (3:2) and the fourth (4:3). Table 3 is found as Sheet 2, Excel Table 2,3 and 4.

The energy required to break the first C – H bond in the methane molecule = 7.34896*10 power -24 electronvolts (Table 3). The energy of the HF frequencies ranges from 5.6*10 power -8 to 3.4*10 power -7 electronvolts which is some 7.63*10 power 15 to 4.5*10 power 16 times the required energy to break the first C – H bond in the methane molecule (Table 3).

Radio frequencies have also been calculated for another set of carrier and modulation frequencies from each transmission antennae with Upper and Lower Side frequencies (Table 3). For the HAARP Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI) Frequency range (2.8 to 10 MHz), a carrier wave of 10 MHz modulated by a 3.56 MHz signal will generate a 13.56 MHz Upper Side Frequency (the methane destruction frequency) and a Lower Side Frequency of 6.44 MHz (Table 3). The Upper Side methane destruction radio frequency of 13.56 MHz has an energy of 5.6*10 power -8 electron volts which is 7.63*10 power 15 times the required energy necessary to break the first C – H bond in the methane molecule (Table 3). The 3.56 MHz modulation signal on the 10 MHz carrier has an energy of 2*10 power 15 times the energy necessary to break the first C – H bond on the methane molecule (Table 3).

Table 3 also shows the calculations for various other frequencies out of the HAARP IRI frequency range which extends from 13.56 MHz to 81.36 MHz (= 6*13.56). The highest energy ratio realized is 3.66*10 power 17 between an Upper Side Frequency of 650.88 MHz and the energy necessary to break the first C – H bond in the methane molecule (Table 3). The Upper Side Frequency is generated by a carrier wave of 433.92 MHz with a modulation signal of 216.96 MHz (Table 3).

Excel Table 4, Sheet 3, Excel Table 2,3 and 4.

Excel Table 4 shows the various harmonic ratios which include octaves, fifths, cubes and squares that the 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz methane destruction radio frequencies can be raised to, to test for the highest degree of methane destruction within a rising methane cloud either at HAARP or in a separate Lucy test facility. Table 4 can be found as Sheet 3, Excel Table 2,3 and 4.

The harmonic multipliers have been derived from the triangular harmonic Lambdoma (Table 4)(Ashton, 2001). The square side of the harmonic Lambdoma extends from 1 to 32 and is important because it includes all the numbers and their sums that are intrinsic in the structure of molecular electron clouds and in the numbers of basic charged particles (Table 4) (Lide and Frederick 1995). The cubic side of the harmonic Lambdoma which extends from 1 to 243 gives all the likely cubic multiples that will be generated by three transmission beams intersecting at right angles in an interference pattern within a rising methane cloud (Table 4). This interference pattern will contain cross shaped interference patterns putting the hydrogen protons under stress in the methane molecule and helping to the destroy the first C – H bond (Table 4).

Various combinations of the octaves, fifths, cubes and squares should be tested in a single transmitter, in two transmitters with an intersecting interference field and in three transmissions intersecting at 90 degrees as well as three transmissions along the edges of a tetrahedron intersecting at 60 degrees to determine what combination of transmitters, orientations and frequencies gives the greatest degree of methane destruction (Table 4).

sheet3

View the full spreadsheet in the window below, or CLICK HERE

Conclusions

The UN/US must immediately declare an international emergency of the most extreme kind and call for a conference of world governments and oil companies to select the fastest and most efficient way to deal with the Arctic methane eruption threat. The Lucy Project and suggested HAARP experiments are methods of destroying the Arctic atmospheric methane clouds at a distance and will be our first line of defence against the extreme global warming potential of the fast increasing concentration of methane in the atmosphere. The Angels proposal aims to depressurize the Arctic sub seafloor methane in – situ and shut down the methane eruption centres, but it will require massive cooperation between governments and oil companies to achieve its objectives (Light, 2012c). We are already two years past the tipping point in August 2010 when massive subsea atmospheric methane eruptions started in earnest in the Arctic. The next three years are all we have left to try to put a break on the Arctic methane emissions before the heating effects and sea level rise due to loss of Arctic sea ice and Arctic methane induced global warming will be completely unstoppable and humanity will be facing total extinction before the middle of this Century (2050).

I cannot emphasise more how serious the Arctic ocean methane eruption problem is and how little time we have left before its effects on global warming become catastrophic. We need to act now before it is too late.

References

Ashton, A. 2001. Harmonograph. A visual guide to the mathematics of music. Wooden Books, Glastonbury. 58 pp.

Boudon V. 2012. Spectroscopy of Methane. Molecular Spectroscopy and Applications. Department of Optics and Matter-Radiation Interaction. Institut Carnat de Bourgogne (ICB). UMR5209 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.
http://icb.u-bourgogne.fr/omr/SMA/Methane

Carana, S. 2011a. Runaway Warming 2011. Geo-engineering blog
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Carana, S. 2011b. Runaway global warming 2011. Geo-engineering blog
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Carana, S. 2011c. Runaway Global Warming. In: Climate Change the Next Generation.
http://climatechangepsychology.blogspot.com/2011/04/sam-carana-runaway-global-warming.html

Carana, S. 2012a. Striking increase of methane in the Arctic. In: Arctic News
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com.es/2012/05/striking-increase-of-methane-in-arctic.html

Carana S., 2012b. Record levels of greenhouse gases in the Arctic. Arctic News. Wednesday, May 2, 2012.
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/2012/05/record-levels-of-greenhouse-gases-in.htmlCarana, S. 2011b. Light, M.P.R. and Carana, S. 2011c. Methane linked to seismic activity in the Arctic.
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/p/seismic-activity.htmlCarana S., Oxygenating the Arctic.
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/p/oxygenating-arctic.htmlCarana S., How would you allocate US$10 million per year to reduce climate risk?
http://geoengineering.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleld=281474979240772Dessus, B., and Laponche B., Herve le Treut, 2008. Global Warming: The Significance of Methane bd-bl-hlt January 2008.
http://www.global-chance.org/IMG/pdf/CH4march2008.pdfEhret G. 2010. MERLIN: French – German climate satellite to be launched in 2014. Deutches Zentrum für Luft – und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Lidar Department.
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Heicklen J. 1976. Atmospheric Chemistry. Academic Press. New York, 406 pp.Hurlbut, C.S., 1959. Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy.
John Wiley and Sons. New York, pp. 609.Krupke W. F., Characteristics of Laser Sources, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, Vol. I, Weber, M. J., Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986.
http://203.158.253.140/media/e-Book/Engineer/Chemistry/Handbook%20of%20Chemistry%20and%20Physics/Section%2010/10_18_86.pdfLide D.R. and Frederickse H.P.R. 1995. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 75th Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1-1 to 1-33.Light M.P.R. 2011a. Use of beamed interfering radio frequency transmissions to decompose Arctic atmospheric methane clouds. Edited by Sam Carana.
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/p/decomposing-atmospheric-methane.htmlLight M.P.R. 2011c. Stratospheric methane global warming veil. Edited by Sam Carana. In: Arctic News. http://arctic-news.blogspot.com.au/p/stratospheric-methane-global-warming.htmlLight M.P.R., 2012a. Global extinction within one human lifetime as a result of a spreading atmospheric methane heatwave and surface firestorm. Edited by Sam Carana. In Arctic News.
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/p/global-extinction-within-one-human.htmlLight M.P.R., 2012b. How much time is there left to act, before methane hydrate releases will lead to human extinction? Edited by Sam Carana. In: Geo-Engineering.
http://geo-engineering.blogspot.com/2012/02/how-much-time-is-there-left-to-act.htmlLight M.P.R. 2012c. Angels Proposal – A Proposal for the Prevention of Arctic Methane Induced Catastrophic Global Climate Change by Extraction of Methane from beneath the Permafrost/Arctic Methane Hydrates and its Storage and Sale as a Subsidized “Green Gas” Energy Source. Light Geomining Solutions, Cortegana, Spain, 49 pp. In: Arctic News.
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com.es/2012/05/proposal-to-extract-store-and-sell.htmlLight M.P.R. and Carana, S., 2011. Methane linked to seismic activity in the Arctic. Edited by Sam Carana. In: Arctic News.
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/p/seismic-activity.htmlLight M.P.R. and Solana C., 2002a. Arctic methane hydrates – Mapping a potential greenhouse gas hazard. Abstract and Poster, EGS, Nice. – Appendix at:
http://arctic-news.blogspot.com/p/seismic-activity.htmlLight, M.P.R. and Solana, C. , 2002b- Arctic Methane Hydrates: A Potential Greenhouse Gas Hazard
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.4077LRamsay J.G. 1967. Folding and Fracturing in Rocks. Mc-Graw Hill, New York. 562 pp.

Shiryaev, AA., Lakoubovskii, N., Grambole D. and Dubrovinskaia, N. 2006. Spectroscopic study of defects and inclusions in bulk poly- and nanocrystalline diamond aggregates. Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter 18, No 40, L493-L501.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_levelYurganov, L., 2012a. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data from NASA’s Aqua Satellite. Index of/pub/yurganov/methane/MAPS/
ftp://asl.umbc.edu/yurganov/methane/MAPS/Yurganov, L., 2012b. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data from NASA’s Aqua Satellite.
ftp://asl.umbc.edu/pub/yurganov/methane/AIRS_CH4%20_2002-2012.jpg

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北極氷最小に by limitlesslife
September 21, 2012, 4:05 am
Filed under: 気象変動 | Tags:
From: Andy Soos, ENN
Published September 20, 2012 09:03 AM

Arctic Ice Minimum

 

The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the effects of global warming, as has become apparent in the melting sea ice in recent years. Climate models predict much greater warming in the Arctic than the global average, resulting in significant attention to the region. In particular, there are concerns that Arctic shrinkage, a consequence of melting glaciers and other ice in Greenland, could contribute to a substantial rise in sea levels worldwide. Arctic sea ice cover likely melted to its minimum extent for the year on September 16, according to scientists at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Sea ice extent fell to 3.41 million square kilometers (1.32 million square miles), which is now the new lowest summer minimum extent.

“We are now in uncharted territory,” said NSIDC Director Mark Serreze. “While we’ve long known that as the planet warms up, changes would be seen first and be most pronounced in the Arctic, few of us were prepared for how rapidly the changes would actually occur.”

In September 2008, the extent of the summer Arctic ice cap was at a near-record low, only 9.01 percent greater than the record low in 2007, and 33.6 percent below the average extent of sea ice from 1979 to 2000. According to the University of Bremen, in September 2011 the Arctic ice cap was smaller than ever before recorded since the satellite measurements started in the 1970s. Arctic ice is declining in area and thinning. Arctic temperatures have risen more than twice as fast as the global average over the past half century.

Arctic sea ice cover grows each winter as the sun sets for several months, and shrinks each summer as the sun rises higher in the northern sky. Each year, the Arctic sea ice reaches its minimum extent in September. This year’s minimum follows a record-breaking summer of low sea ice extents in the Arctic. Sea ice extent fell to 4.10 million square kilometers (1.58 million square miles) on August 26, breaking the lowest extent on record set on September 18, 2007 of 4.17 million square kilometers (1.61 million square miles). On September 4, it fell below 4.00 million square kilometers (1.54 million square miles), another first in the 33-year satellite record.

“The strong late season decline is indicative of how thin the ice cover is,” said NSIDC scientist Walt Meier. “Ice has to be quite thin to continue melting away as the sun goes down and fall approaches.”

NSIDC scientists have observed fundamental changes in the Arctic’s sea ice cover. The Arctic used to be dominated by multiyear ice, or ice that survived through several years. Lately, the Arctic is increasingly characterized by seasonal ice cover and large areas are now prone to completely melt away in summer.

Arctic sea ice has long been recognized as a sensitive climate indicator. The region’s sea ice extent–defined by NSIDC as the total area covered by at least 15 percent of ice—varies from year to year because of changeable weather conditions. However, ice extent has shown a dramatic overall decline over the past thirty years. This year’s minimum will be nearly 50 percent lower than the 1979 to 2000 average.

NSIDC lead scientist Ted Scambos said that thinning ice, along with early loss of snow, are rapidly warming the Arctic. “But a wider impact may come from the increased heat and moisture the warmer Arctic is adding to the climate system,” he said.

NSIDC scientist Julienne Stroeve said, “Recent climate models suggest that ice-free conditions may happen before 2050, though the observed rate of decline remains faster than many of the models are able to capture.”

Serreze said, “While lots of people talk about opening of the Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic islands and the Northern Sea Route along the Russian coast, twenty years from now from now in August you might be able to take a ship right across the Arctic Ocean.”

For further information see Arctic Ice.

Arctic Sea image via Wikipedia.



海面上昇1880以降20cm以上、今世紀1.5~2m以上 by limitlesslife

Report: Global Warming Could Double US Flooding

Published on Wednesday, March 14, 2012 by Common Dreams

– Common Dreams staff

Rising seas dramatically increase the odds of damaging floods from storm surges. Global warming has raised global sea level about 8 inches since 1880, and the rate of rise is accelerating.  These are facts. And now, according to a new analysis by non-profit research organization Climate Central, the level of accelaration may be growing faster than previously thought and odds of “century floods” (or worse) occurring by 2030 are on track to double or more, over widespread areas of the United States.

“Sea level rise is like an invisible tsunami, building force while we do almost nothing,” said Benjamin H. Strauss, an author, with other scientists, of two new papers outlining the research. “We have a closing window of time to prevent the worst by preparing for higher seas.” (Image copyright Greg Ceo 2009)According to their new report, these floods threaten untold financial damages. “Across the country, nearly 5 million people live in 2.6 million homes at less than 4 feet above high tide — a level lower than the century flood line for most locations analyzed. And compounding this risk, scientists expect roughly 2 to 7 more feet of sea level rise this century — a lot depending upon how much more heat-trapping pollution humanity puts into the sky.”

The New York Times reports:

If the pace of the rise accelerates as much as expected, researchers found, coastal flooding at levels that were once exceedingly rare could become an every-few-years occurrence by the middle of this century.

By far the most vulnerable state is Florida, the new analysis found, with roughly half of the nation’s at-risk population living near the coast on the porous, low-lying limestone shelf that constitutes much of that state. But Louisiana, California, New York and New Jersey are also particularly vulnerable, researchers found, and virtually the entire American coastline is at some degree of risk.

“Sea level rise is like an invisible tsunami, building force while we do almost nothing,” said Benjamin H. Strauss, an author, with other scientists, of two new papers outlining the research. “We have a closing window of time to prevent the worst by preparing for higher seas.”

An interactive map creating to mirror the research shows potential flooding in specific states and coastal areas:Sea level rise, storms, and global warming’s threat to the U.S. coast

The report is based on two just-published peer-reviewed studies, and is the first major national analysis of sea level rise in 20 years, and the first one ever to include:

  • Estimates of land, population and housing at risk;
  • Evaluations of every low-lying coastal town, city, county and state in the contiguous U.S.;
  • Localized timelines of storm surge threats integrating local sea level rise projections; and
  • A freely available interactive map and data to download online (see SurgingSeas.org).

Summaries of these findings at a state-by-state level are available in fact sheets and the original peer-reviewed studies are available as well.  All findings reflect best estimates from the research; actual values may vary. The summar reads, in part:

This report focuses on new research and analysis, not recommendations; but it is clear from the findings here that in order to avoid the worst impacts, the United States must work to slow sea level rise by reducing emissions of heat-trapping gases, and work to diminish the remaining danger by preparing for higher seas in coastal cities and counties everywhere. SurgingSeas.org/responses/plans lists a selection of existing resources, plans and efforts to prepare, from local to national levels.



最初の植物上陸が氷河期をもたらした(炭酸ガスなど減少) by limitlesslife

First Plants Caused Ice Ages, New Research Reveals

ScienceDaily (Feb. 1, 2012) — New research reveals how the arrival of the first plants 470 million years ago triggered a series of ice ages. Led by the Universities of Exeter and Oxford, the study is published in Nature Geoscience.

Among the first plants to grow on land were the ancestors of mosses that grow today. (Credit: iStockphoto)

The team set out to identify the effects that the first land plants had on the climate during the Ordovician Period, which ended 444 million years ago. During this period the climate gradually cooled, leading to a series of ‘ice ages’. This global cooling was caused by a dramatic reduction in atmospheric carbon, which this research now suggests was triggered by the arrival of plants.

Among the first plants to grow on land were the ancestors of mosses that grow today. This study shows that they extracted minerals such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron from rocks in order to grow. In so doing, they caused chemical weathering of Earth’s surface. This had a dramatic impact on the global carbon cycle and subsequently on the climate. It could also have led to a mass extinction of marine life.

The research suggests that the first plants caused the weathering of calcium and magnesium ions from silicate rocks, such as granite, in a process that removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, forming new carbonate rocks in the ocean. This cooled global temperatures by around five degrees Celsius.

In addition, by weathering the nutrients phosphorus and iron from rocks, the first plants increased the quantities of both these nutrients going into the oceans, fuelling productivity there and causing organic carbon burial. This removed yet more carbon from the atmosphere, further cooling the climate by another two to three degrees Celsius. It could also have had a devastating impact on marine life, leading to a mass extinction that has puzzled scientists.

The team used the modern moss, Physcomitrella patens for their study. They placed a number of rocks, with or without moss growing on them, into incubators. Over three months they were able to measure the effects the moss had on the chemical weathering of the rocks.

They then used an Earth system model to establish what difference plants could have made to climate change during the Ordovician Period.

One of the lead researchers, Professor Tim Lenton of Geography at the University of Exeter said: “This study demonstrates the powerful effects that plants have on our climate. Although plants are still cooling the Earth’s climate by reducing atmospheric carbon levels, they cannot keep up with the speed of today’s human-induced climate change. In fact, it would take millions of years for plants to remove current carbon emissions from the atmosphere.”

Professor Liam Dolan of Oxford University, one of the lead researchers, said: “For me the most important take-home message is that the invasion of the land by plants — a pivotal time in the history of the planet — brought about huge climate changes. Our discovery emphasises that plants have a central regulatory role in the control of climate: they did yesterday, they do today and they certainly will in the future.”

The study was carried out by a team from the Universities of Exeter, Oxford and East Anglia and the John Innes Centre.



北極氷減少が大雪になる by limitlesslife

Less Summer Arctic Sea Ice Cover Means Colder, Snowier Winters in Central Europe

Ice floes in the Arctic. (Credit: Alfred Wegener Institute)

ScienceDaily (Feb. 1, 2012) — Even if the current weather situation may seem to speak against it, the probability of cold winters with much snow in Central Europe rises when the Arctic is covered by less sea ice in summer. Scientists of the Research Unit Potsdam of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in the Helmholtz Association have decrypted a mechanism in which a shrinking summertime sea ice cover changes the air pressure zones in the Arctic atmosphere and impacts our European winter weather.

These results of a global climate analysis were recently published in a study in the scientific journal Tellus A.

If there is a particularly large-scale melt of Arctic sea ice in summer, as observed in recent years, two important effects are intensified. Firstly, the retreat of the light ice surface reveals the darker ocean, causing it to warm up more in summer from the solar radiation (ice-albedo feedback mechanism). Secondly, the diminished ice cover can no longer prevent the heat stored in the ocean being released into the atmosphere (lid effect). As a result of the decreased sea ice cover the air is warmed more greatly than it used to be particularly in autumn and winter because during this period the ocean is warmer than the atmosphere. “These higher temperatures can be proven by current measurements from the Arctic regions,” reports Ralf Jaiser, lead author of the publication from the Research Unit Potsdam of the Alfred Wegener Institute.

The warming of the air near to the ground leads to rising movements and the atmosphere becomes less stable. “We have analysed the complex non-linear processes behind this destabilisation and have shown how these altered conditions in the Arctic influence the typical circulation and air pressure patterns,” explains Jaiser. One of these patterns is the air pressure difference between the Arctic and mid-latitudes: the so-called Arctic oscillation with the Azores highs and Iceland lows known from the weather reports. If this difference is high, a strong westerly wind will result which in winter carries warm and humid Atlantic air masses right down to Europe. If the wind does not come, cold Arctic air can penetrate down through to Europe, as was the case in the last two winters. Model calculations show that the air pressure difference with decreased sea ice cover in the Arctic summer is weakened in the following winter, enabling Arctic cold to push down to mid-latitudes.

Despite the low sea ice cover in summer 2011, a cold winter with much snow has so far not occurred here in Germany. Jaiser explains this as follows: “Many other factors naturally play a role in the complex climate system of our Earth which overlap in part. Our results explain the mechanisms of how regional changes in the Arctic sea ice cover have a global impact and their effects over a period from late summer to winter. Other mechanisms are linked, for example, with the snow cover in Siberia or tropical influences. The interactions between these influential factors will be the subject matter of future research work and therefore represent a factor of uncertainty in forecasts.”

It is the aim of the Potsdam researchers to find and analyse further mechanisms and to correctly show the Earth’s climate system with the help of these mechanisms in models. “Our work contributes to reducing the existing uncertainties of the global climate model and developing more credible regional climate scenarios — an important foundation to enable people to adjust to the altered conditions,” explains Prof. Dr. Klaus Dethloff, Head of the Atmospheric Circulation Section at the Research Unit Potsdam of the Alfred Wegener Institute.



NASA:古気象史は2度温度上昇は海面25m上昇を示す by limitlesslife

Secrets from the past point to rapid climate change in the future

At the Earth’s current rate of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere, the planet is likely to experience several degrees increase in average temperatures and large-scale changes such as ice sheet loss that could lead to several meters of sea level rise this century, NASA’s James Hansen said in a recent paper. Credit: NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio.
At the Earth’s current rate of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere, the planet is likely to experience several degrees increase in average temperatures and large-scale changes such as ice sheet loss that could lead to several meters of sea level rise this century, NASA’s James Hansen said in a recent paper. Credit: NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio.
12.15.11
By Patrick Lynch,
NASA’s Earth Science News TeamNew research into the Earth’s paleoclimate history by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies director James Hansen suggests the potential for rapid climate changes this century, including multiple meters of sea level rise, if global warming is not abated.By looking at how the Earth’s climate responded to past natural changes, Hansen sought insight into a fundamental question raised by ongoing human-caused climate change: “What is the dangerous level of global warming?” Some international leaders have suggested a goal of limiting warming to two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) from pre-industrial times in order to avert catastrophic change. But Hansen said at a press briefing at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco recently that a warming of two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) would lead to drastic changes, such as significant ice sheet loss in Greenland and Antarctica.Based on Hansen’s temperature analysis work at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Earth’s average global surface temperature has already risen 0.8 degrees Celsius (1.4 degrees Fahrenheit) since 1880, and is now warming at a rate of more than 0.1 degrees Celsius (0.2 degrees Fahrenheit) every decade. This warming is largely driven by increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide, emitted by the burning of fossil fuels at power plants, by cars and by industry. At the current rate of fossil fuel burning, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will have doubled from pre-industrial times by the middle of this century. A doubling of carbon dioxide would cause an eventual warming of several degrees, Hansen said.

In recent research, Hansen and co-author Makiko Sato, also of Goddard Institute for Space Studies, compared the climate of today, the “Holocene”, with previous similar “interglacial” epochs — periods when polar ice caps existed but the world was not dominated by glaciers. In studying cores drilled from both ice sheets and deep ocean sediments, Hansen found that global mean temperatures during the “Eemian” period, which began about 130,000 years ago and lasted about 15,000 years, were less than 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than today. If temperatures were to rise two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) over pre-industrial times, global mean temperature would far exceed that of the Eemian, when sea level was four to six meters higher than today, Hansen said.

The average global surface temperature of Earth has risen by 0.8 degrees Celsius (1.4 degrees Fahrenheit) since 1880, and is now increasing at a rate of about 0.1 degrees Celsius (0.2 degrees Fahrenheit) per decade. This image shows how 2010 temperatures compare to average temperatures from a baseline period of 1951-1980, as analyzed by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Credit: NASA GISS.

The average global surface temperature of Earth has risen by 0.8 degrees Celsius (1.4 degrees Fahrenheit) since 1880, and is now increasing at a rate of about 0.1 degrees Celsius (0.2 degrees Fahrenheit) per decade. This image shows how 2010 temperatures compare to average temperatures from a baseline period of 1951-1980, as analyzed by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Credit: NASA GISS.

“The paleoclimate record reveals a more sensitive climate than thought, even as of a few years ago. Limiting human-caused warming to two degrees [Celsius] is not sufficient,” Hansen said. “It would be a prescription for disaster.”

Hansen focused much of his new work on how the polar regions and in particular the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland will react to a warming world.

Two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) of warming would make Earth much warmer than during the Eemian, and would move Earth closer to “Pliocene”-like conditions, when sea level was in the range of 25 meters (82 feet) higher than today, Hansen said. In using Earth’s climate history to learn more about the level of sensitivity that governs our planet’s response to warming today, Hansen said the paleoclimate record suggests that every degree Celsius of global temperature rise will ultimately equate to 20 meters (66 feet) of sea level rise. However, that sea level increase due to ice sheet loss would be expected to occur over centuries, and large uncertainties remain in predicting how that ice loss would unfold.

Hansen notes that ice sheet disintegration will not be a linear process. This non-linear deterioration has already been seen in vulnerable places such as Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica, where the rate of ice mass loss has continued accelerating over the past decade. Data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite is already consistent with a rate of ice sheet mass loss in Greenland and West Antarctica that doubles every ten years. The GRACE record is too short to confirm this with great certainty; however, the trend in the past few years does not rule it out, Hansen said. This continued rate of ice loss could cause multiple meters of sea level rise by 2100, Hansen said.

Ice and ocean sediment cores from the polar regions indicate that temperatures at the poles during previous epochs — when sea level was tens of meters higher — is not too far removed from the temperatures Earth could reach this century on a “business as usual” trajectory.

“We don’t have a substantial cushion between today’s climate and dangerous warming,” Hansen said. “Earth is poised to experience strong amplifying feedbacks in response to moderate additional global warming.”

Detailed considerations of a new warming target and how to get there are beyond the scope of this research, Hansen said. But this research is consistent with Hansen’s earlier findings that carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would need to be rolled back from about 390 parts per million in the atmosphere today to 350 parts per million in order to stabilize the climate in the long term. While leaders continue to discuss a framework for reducing emissions, global carbon dioxide emissions have remained stable or increased in recent years.

Hansen and others noted that while the paleoclimate evidence paints a clear picture of what Earth’s earlier climate looked like, but that using it to predict precisely how the climate might change on much smaller timescales in response to human-induced rather than natural climate change remains difficult. But, Hansen noted, the Earth system is already showing signs of responding, even in the cases of “slow feedbacks” such as ice sheet changes.

The human-caused release of increased carbon dioxide into the atmosphere also presents climate scientists with something they’ve never seen in the 65 million year record of carbon dioxide levels — a drastic rate of increase that makes it difficult to predict how rapidly the Earth will respond. In periods when carbon dioxide has increased due to natural causes, the rate of increase averaged about 0.0001 parts per million per year — in other words, one hundred parts per million every million years. Fossil fuel burning is now causing carbon dioxide concentrations to increase at two parts per million per year.

“Humans have overwhelmed the natural, slow changes that occur on geologic timescales,” Hansen said.